Her Campus Logo Her Campus Logo
Sex + Relationships

The Lesbian Legacy: Deconstructing Compulsory Heterosexuality

Happy pride month!

In honor of the LGBTQ+ community, it’s good form to appreciate what the community teaches us about authenticity and the deconstruction of norms.

As an introduction to gay liberation politics, compulsory heterosexuality is the product of institutional and cultural systems that assume heterosexuality as the norm and reinforce its power and privilege with legal, economic and cultural structures. This term in its original context is used in reference to the lesbian experience as they do not experience genuine attraction to men. Bisexual people and those who are attracted to men are completely valid!

The term originates from a 1980 essay by Adrienne Rich, entitled “Compulsory Heterosexuality and the Lesbian Existence.” 

Rich wrote of the heteropatriarchy denying that women could have a relationship beyond a mother-daughter dynamic, discrediting female friendship and attraction in order to maintain a submissive working class. How else were women supposed to have babies? A woman’s relationship, without a male involved, is considered pointless and absurd under compulsory heterosexuality. News flash: sex can be recreational; queer sex exactly places value in pleasure over ejaculation. Previous lesbian relationships were kept hidden to prevent others from becoming aware of this ‘lifestyle” without men.

It reminds me of the iconic movie, Romy and Michele’s High School Reunion (1997). Romy sighs, “I swear I wish I were a lesbian” then Michele nonchalantly replies with, “You wanna try to have sex sometime?” 

Related to the work of Rich, lesbian relationships aren’t “advertised” as one way to pressure people into defaulting to heterosexuality. The idea of intentionally choosing your sexuality is definitely problematic; compulsory heterosexuality describes the forced attraction of heterosexuality, namely on women in order to reinforce reliance and heteropatriarchy.

Some common signs of compulsory heterosexuality:

  • Only/mostly being attracted to unattainable, disinterested or fictional guys you never or rarely interact with
  • Thinking you’re commitment-phobic because no relationship, no matter how great the guy, feels quite right
  • Liking the idea of being with a man but once it becomes a realistic possibility, it makes you anxious
  • Choosing to be attracted to a guy at all or flipping your attraction on like a switch
  • Having sex, not out of desire for the physical pleasure or emotional closeness in heterosexual relatioships, but because you like feeling wanted

More signs can be found in the Am I a Lesbian? document

These effects are not unnoticed. Compared to gays and bisexuals, lesbian people are often the last to “come out.”  On average, gay men reveal their sexual orientation at age 18 to friends and family. Generally, bisexuals come out at 20 and lesbians come out at age 21 (Martos et al., 2015). While there are a myriad of factors, I immediately connected this to the time it may take to reconcile with the possibility of female socialized attraction to men. 

Because of the constant centering of men in relationships under the patriarchy, Rich defines the lesbian existence as a rejection of male right of access to the woman, like he would have to his wife. It defies and attacks compulsory heterosexuality.  She also introduces the term “lesbian continuum” as the potential for all female comradery. Being a lesbian is as natural as it is political.

While Rich’s essay has intersectional limitations, it fostered more queer discussion.  Michael Warner popularized the term, “heteronormativity,” describing the normalization of heterosexuality and the gender binary as the default, that anything outside of this norm is devious or queer. An entirely different topic worthy of its own discussion, this cultural imperialism dominates mainstream media. The male gaze, a term coined by Laura Mulvey in “Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema,” habitually objectifies women for the pleasure of the heterosexual male viewer. It can be translated into our reality and internalized, prompting women to surveil their bodies to maximize male attention which can fester insecurities. We must remember that we don’t exist to please another person. In capitalist society, it is difficult to detach our worth from our production value.

I ask you to reflect on compulsory heterosexuality, even if you are not a lesbian, so you can ask yourself if you are truly being your authentic self or if you are performing. The main oppression of queer folks is heteropatriarchy, which serves to naturalize other oppressive social hierarchies (The Anti-Violence Project). Following queer theory would be to practice deconstruction, question everything you thought you knew and challenge the systems in place.

“Any liberation struggle that does not challenge heteronormativity cannot substantially challenge colonialism or white supremacy” – Andrea Smith, Heteropatriarchy and the Three Pillars of White Supremacy: Rethinking Women of Color Organizing

Here are some graphics to help contextualize allyship and liberation:

Extra Resources:

Podcast on Compulsory Heterosexuality

Queer Theory Readings

The Trevor Project

Scholarships for LBGTQ+ Students

National Resources – UCI compiled 

Thank you for reading. Take care!

You are what you love. In my case, it's caffeinated beverages, sun beams, and maintaining space for potential and the unimaginable. As an enneagram type 7, I love to learn. I'm in my third year studying Political Science and Social Ecology. Open to hearing from you! In solidarity, Dory (she/they)
Similar Reads👯‍♀️